Why is storytelling important?  Our life is made up of stories. 

When you can put what you read into story grammar, it is easier to remember.

Being able to sequence what you know when you read is a good indication of comprehension and is often looked at in school.  (Groce, 2004)

Story format may mean merely knowing the beginning, middle and end of a process to knowing in detail how things are sequenced. 

Use specific graphic organizers depending on the nature of the text. 

Sometimes things go in a cycle, other times they go in a chain.

In narratives, the characters are often on a journey through certain events.

Tell the Sequence of Events:

1) Think: What is the Narrative Process?

2) Order text as a whole or in sections if necessary into Beginning Middle, and End.

3) Actively make the process into a story.

4) Think: Can you use story grammar, story structure, or sequential graphic organizers?

One framework that can be helpful for narrative texts is the 4 C’s, Willingham’s approach to understanding a story.  (Willingham, 2009)

Causality Why do certain actions take place in the text?
Conflict The main character is trying to reach a goal but an obstacle gets in the way.
Complications The subproblems that happen as the main character seeks the goal and deals with the obstacle.
Character In good stories you learn about the characters through actions.  The author shows you instead of telling you.

An alternative framework for describing conflict is (MacOn, Bewell & Vogt, 1991)

Someone Wanted/Because But So
Who? (Character) What did they want to do?  Why did they want to do it? Did they get it or not? If not, then move on. If yes, what was the resolution. So what did they do next?  Try again, move on, give up?

Narrative Text Organizer

Story grammar across disciplines



conflictdissection Someone Wanted History

Sequencing frameworks:




chain of events



Story Maps:







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